TheoremLlama: An End-To-End Framework to Train a General-Purpose Large Language Model to Become a Lean4 Expert

TheoremLlama: An End-To-End Framework to Train a General-Purpose Large Language Model to Become a Lean4 Expert

A major step forward in mathematical reasoning is the use of computer-verifiable formal languages such as Lean to prove mathematical theorems. These formal languages make it possible to rigorously verify proofs, guaranteeing accuracy and consistency in mathematical outcomes. Using Large Language Models (LLMs) trained on Natural Language (NL) proofs to produce comprehensive formal proofs is a promising method for formal theorem proving. 

However, the lack of aligned NL and Formal Language (FL) theorem-proving data frequently makes it difficult for contemporary LLMs to operate at peak efficiency. The lack of available resources impedes the advancement of efficient training approaches and strategies to fully utilize LLMs’ potential in creating formal mathematical proofs. In order to overcome these limitations, a team of researchers from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and the University of Illinois Urban-Champagin has introduced TheoremLlama, an end-to-end framework created to specialize a general-purpose LLM in Lean4 theorem proving.

TheoremLlama is made up of various important parts, which are as follows.

NL-FL Aligned Dataset Generation: TheoremLlama presents techniques for creating an NL-FL-aligned dataset in order to get over data shortage. This dataset, called Open Bootstrapped Theorems (OBT), uses a bootstrapping technique to include NL proofs into Lean4 code. By integrating NL reasoning into Lean4 scenarios, the framework improves LLMs’ comprehension and execution of formal reasoning.


Formal Training for LLM Theorem Provers: The system applies new training strategies to help LLMs become successful Lean4 theorem provers. Methods like block training and curriculum data sorting have been utilized to enhance the LLM’s in-context learning and guarantee reliable training on the OBT dataset.

LLM Lean4 Proof Writing: This part is about improving the LLM’s capacity to write formal proofs in Lean4 on its own. The LLM refines its formal reasoning abilities iteratively by using correctly generated proofs as examples.

TheoremLlama’s NL-FL bootstrapping approach is a significant invention that enables efficient training by coordinating natural language reasoning with formal mathematical language constraints. The framework’s efficiency has been demonstrated by experimental findings, which on the MiniF2F-Valid and Test datasets, respectively, yielded cumulative accuracies of 36.48% and 33.61%. These outcomes outperformed GPT-4’s baseline findings, which on the same datasets yielded accuracies of 22.95% and 25.41%.

In conclusion, TheoremLlama is an important step towards using LLMs’ natural language abilities to formalize theorem proving in Lean4, improving mathematical reasoning, and tackling major issues with data alignment and training approaches.

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Tanya Malhotra is a final year undergrad from the University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun, pursuing BTech in Computer Science Engineering with a specialization in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning.She is a Data Science enthusiast with good analytical and critical thinking, along with an ardent interest in acquiring new skills, leading groups, and managing work in an organized manner.

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